SCIENTIFIC ARTICLES

Separation of an aqueous extract Inonotus obliquus (Chaga). A novel look at the efficiency of its influence on proliferation of A549 human lung carcinoma cells.
Mazurkiewicz W, Rydel K, Pogocki D, Lemieszek MK, Langner E, Rzeski W. Acta Pol Pharm. 2010 Jul-Aug;67(4):397-406.PMID: 20635536 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINEAnticancer activity of subfractions containing pure compounds of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract in human cancer cells and in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells.
Chung MJ, Chung CK, Jeong Y, Ham SS. Nutr Res Pract. 2010 Jun;4(3):177-82. Epub 2010 Jun 29.PMID: 20607061 [PubMed – in process]

Optimization of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of exo-polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus in submerged fermentation using response surface methodology.
Chen H, Xu X, Zhu Y. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010 Apr;20(4):835-43.PMID: 20467262 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Lu X, Chen H, Dong P, Fu L, Zhang X. J Sci Food Agric. 2010 Jan 30;90(2):276-80.PMID: 20355042 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Anti-inflammatory effects of Inonotus obliquus in colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate.

Choi SY, Hur SJ, An CS, Jeon YH, Jeoung YJ, Bak JP, Lim BO. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2010;2010:943516. Epub 2010 Mar 10. Review.PMID: 20300439 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Cancer cell cytotoxicity of extracts and small phenolic compounds from Chaga [Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat].

Nakajima Y, Nishida H, Matsugo S, Konishi T. J Med Food. 2009 Jun;12(3):501-7.PMID: 19627197 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Antioxidant activities of extracts and subfractions from Inonotus Obliquus.

Liang L, Zhang Z, Wang H. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2009;60 Suppl 2:175-84. Epub 2009 Jul 1.PMID: 19585318 [PubMed – in process]

Anti-inflammatory effect of Inonotus obliquus, Polygala senega L., and Viburnum trilobum in a cell screening assay.

Van Q, Nayak BN, Reimer M, Jones PJ, Fulcher RG, Rempel CB. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Sep 25;125(3):487-93. Epub 2009 Jul 3.PMID: 19577624 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Progress of research on Inonotus obliquus.

Zhong XH, Ren K, Lu SJ, Yang SY, Sun DZ. Chin J Integr Med. 2009 Apr;15(2):156-60. Epub 2009 Apr 29. Review.PMID: 19407959 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Antitumor activity of water extract of a mushroom, Inonotus obliquus, against HT-29 human colon cancer cells.

Lee SH, Hwang HS, Yun JW. Phytother Res. 2009 Dec;23(12):1784-9.PMID: 19367670 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Oxidative stress response of Inonotus obliquus induced by hydrogen peroxide.

Zheng W, Zhao Y, Zhang M, Wei Z, Miao K, Sun W. Med Mycol. 2009 Dec;47(8):814-23.PMID: 19184774 [PubMed – in process]

Comparative study of antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effect of hot water and ethanol extracts from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus.

Hu H, Zhang Z, Lei Z, Yang Y, Sugiura N. J Biosci Bioeng. 2009 Jan;107(1):42-8.PMID: 19147108 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Evaluation of antitumor activity of peptide extracts from medicinal plants on the model of transplanted breast cancer in CBRB-Rb(8.17)1Iem mice.

Tepkeeva II, Moiseeva EV, Chaadaeva AV, Zhavoronkova EV, Kessler YV, Semushina SG, Demushkin VP. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2008 Apr;145(4):464-6.PMID: 19110595 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Potential anticancer properties of the water extract of Inonotus [corrected] obliquus by induction of apoptosis in melanoma B16-F10 cells.

Youn MJ, Kim JK, Park SY, Kim Y, Park C, Kim ES, Park KI, So HS, Park R. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Jan 21;121(2):221-8. Epub 2008 Oct 25.PMID: 19041933 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE

Inotodiol, a lanostane triterpenoid, from Inonotus obliquus inhibits cell proliferation through caspase-3-dependent apoptosis.

Nomura M, Takahashi T, Uesugi A, Tanaka R, Kobayashi S. Anticancer Res. 2008 Sep-Oct;28(5A):2691-6.PMID: 19035296 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Antimutagenic effects of subfractions of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract.

Ham SS, Kim SH, Moon SY, Chung MJ, Cui CB, Han EK, Chung CK, Choe M. Mutat Res. 2009 Jan 10;672(1):55-9. Epub 2008 Oct 17.PMID: 18992843 [PubMed – in process]

Identification of Inonotus obliquus and analysis of antioxidation and antitumor activities of polysaccharides.

Song Y, Hui J, Kou W, Xin R, Jia F, Wang N, Hu F, Zhang H, Liu H. Curr Microbiol. 2008 Nov;57(5):454-62. Epub 2008 Sep 16.PMID: 18795365 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Lanostane-type triterpenoids from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus possessing anti-tumor promoting activity.

Taji S, Yamada T, Wada S, Tokuda H, Sakuma K, Tanaka R. Eur J Med Chem. 2008 Nov;43(11):2373-9. Epub 2008 Feb 8.PMID: 18387711 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) induces G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

Youn MJ, Kim JK, Park SY, Kim Y, Kim SJ, Lee JS, Chai KY, Kim HJ, Cui MX, So HS, Kim KY, Park R. World J Gastroenterol. 2008 Jan 28;14(4):511-7.PMID: 18203281 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]Free PMC Article

Identification of a novel blocker of IkappaBalpha kinase activation that enhances apoptosis and inhibits proliferation and invasion by suppressing nuclear factor-kappaB.

Sung B, Pandey MK, Nakajima Y, Nishida H, Konishi T, Chaturvedi MM, Aggarwal BB. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008 Jan;7(1):191-201.PMID: 18202022 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

New antioxidant polyphenols from the medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus.

Lee IK, Kim YS, Jang YW, Jung JY, Yun BS. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007 Dec 15;17(24):6678-81. Epub 2007 Oct 25.PMID: 17980585 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Antioxidant small phenolic ingredients in Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat (Chaga).

Nakajima Y, Sato Y, Konishi T. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2007 Aug;55(8):1222-6.PMID: 17666849 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE

Analysis of aqueous extract of Inonotus obliquus.

Mazurkiewicz W. Acta Pol Pharm. 2006 Nov-Dec;63(6):497-501.PMID: 17438866 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Isolation and characterization of a novel platelet aggregation inhibitory peptide from the medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus.

Hyun KW, Jeong SC, Lee DH, Park JS, Lee JS. Peptides. 2006 Jun;27(6):1173-8. Epub 2005 Nov 11.PMID: 16289471 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Chaga mushroom extract inhibits oxidative DNA damage in human lymphocytes as assessed by comet assay.

Park YK, Lee HB, Jeon EJ, Jung HS, Kang MH. Biofactors. 2004;21(1-4):109-12.PMID: 15630179 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Antioxidant effect of Inonotus obliquus.

Cui Y, Kim DS, Park KC. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jan 4;96(1-2):79-85.PMID: 15588653 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Zjawiony JK. J Nat Prod. 2004 Feb;67(2):300-10. Review.PMID: 14987072 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
[The nature of melanin pigments from some micro- and macromycetes]
Babitskaia VG, Shcherba VV. Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 2002 May-Jun;38(3):286-91. Russian. PMID: 12068581 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
[Physicochemical properties of melanins produced by Inonotus obliquus(“chagi”) in the nature and the cultivated fungus]
Kukulianskaia TA, Kurchenko NV, Kurchenko VP, Babitskaia VG. Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 2002 Jan-Feb;38(1):68-72. Russian. PMID: 11852571 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
[Melanin complex of the fungus Inonotus obliquus]
Babitskaia VG, Shcherba VV, Ikonnikova NV. Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 2000 Jul-Aug;36(4):439-44. Russian. PMID: 10994193 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
[Effects of bioglycans from birch fungus Inonotus obliquus on the electrical activity of cells from the cardiac venous sinus of the frog]
Golovko VA. Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1999 Sep;128(9):264-6. Russian. No abstract available. PMID: 10560041 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

The effect of aqueous extracts from Inonotus obliquus on the mitotic index and enzyme activities.

Rzymowska J. Boll Chim Farm. 1998 Jan;137(1):13-5.PMID: 9595828 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Antimitotic activity of aqueous extracts of Inonotus obliquus.

Burczyk J, Gawron A, Slotwinska M, Smietana B, Terminska K. Boll Chim Farm. 1996 May;135(5):306-9.PMID: 8942059 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Fungi in Khanty folk medicine.

Saar M. J Ethnopharmacol. 1991 Feb;31(2):175-9.PMID: 2023426 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Effect of the extracts from fungus Inonotus obliquus on catalase level in HeLa and nocardia cells.

Jarosz A, Skórska M, Rzymowska J, Kochmańska-Rdest J, Malarczyk E. Acta Biochim Pol. 1990;37(1):149-51.PMID: 2087905 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Antitumor Activity of Triterpenes in Inonotus obliquus.

Kahlos K, Kangas L, Hiltunen R. Planta Med. 1986 Dec;52(6):554. No abstract available. PMID: 17345522 [PubMed – in process]
[Aqueous extracts of Inonotus obliquus vel. Poria obliqua in the diagnosis of leukemias.]
KRAUSS-ZAKI J. Postepy Hig Med Dosw. 1962 Sep-Oct;16:855-9. Polish. No abstract available. PMID: 14035596 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
[Nature and origin of water-soluble pigment complex formed by Inonotus obliquus.]
SHIVRINA AN, LOVIAGINA EV, PLATONOVA EG. Biokhimiia. 1959 Jan-Feb;24(1):67-72. Russian. No abstract available. PMID: 13628806 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
[Pharmacological and biological characteristics of Inonotus obliquus.]
BAZYLEVA NN, BOLOTKINA LI, LASKINA EM, OSVETIMSKAIA NP, SMIRNOVA LI. Farmakol Toksikol. 1958 Sep-Oct;21(5):89-90. Russian. No abstract available. PMID: 13609697 [PubMed – OLDMEDLINE]

Farmakol Toksikol. 1958 Sep-Oct;21(5):89-90. Russian. No abstract available. PMID: 13609697 [PubMed – OLDMEDLINE]

Anonymous. 2004. Cytotoxic effect of Inonotus obliquus composition in HCT-15 human colon and AGS gastric cancer cells. Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. 33:633-640.

Alves, R. E., et al. 2002. Camu camu (Myrciaria dubia Mc Vaugh): a rich natural source of vitamin C. Proc. Interamer. Soc. Trop. Hort. 46:11-13.

Ajith, T. A. and K. K. Janardhanan. 2007. Indian medicinal mushrooms as a source of antioxidant and antitumor agents. J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr. 40:157.

Babitskaya, V. G,, Scherba, V. V., Ikonnikova, N.V., Bisko, N.A., and N.Y. Mitropoiskaya. 2002. Melanin complex from medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus (Pers:Fr.) Pilat (Chaga) (Aphyllophoromycetidae). Int. J. Med. Mushrooms. 4:139-45.

Babitskaya, V. G,, Scherba, V. V., Ikonnikova, N.V., Bisko, N.A., and N.Y. Mitropoiskaya. 2002. Melanin complex from medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus (Pers:Fr.) Pilat (Chaga) (Aphyllophoromycetidae). Int. J. Med. Mushrooms. 4:139-45.

Bobek, P., Ozdin, L., and I. Kajaba. 1997. Dose-dependent hypocholesterolemic effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in rats. Physiol Res. 47:327-329.

Bobek, P. and S. Galbavy. 1999. Hypocholesteremic and antiatherogenic effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus osteratus) in rabbits. Nahrung. 43:339-342.

Burczyk, J., Gawron, A. Slotwinska, M., Smietana, B., and K. Terminiska. 1996. Antimitotic activity of aqueous extracts of Inonotus obliquus. Boll. Chim. Farm. 135:306.

Chang, S. T. 1999. Global impact edible and medicinal mushrooms on human welfare in the 21st century: non-green evolution. Int. J. Med. Mushr. 1:1-7.

Chen, C., Zheng, W., Gao, X., Xiang, X., Sun, D., Wei, J., and C. Chu. 2007. Aqueous extract of Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) pilat (Hymenochaetaceae) significantly inhibits the growth of sarcoma 180 by inducing apoptosis. American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2:10-17.

Chihara, G., Maeda, Y., Sasaki, T. and F. Fukuoaka. 1969. Inhibition of mouse sarcoma 180 by polysaccharides from Letin us eodes (Berk.) Nature. 222:687.

Chorvathova, V., et al. 1993. Effect of oyster fungus on glycemia and cholesterolaemia in rats with insluin-dependent diabetes. Physiol. Res. 42:175-179.

Cui, Yo, Kim, D. S., and K. C. Park. 2005. Antioxidant effects of Inonotus Oblique. J. Ethnopharmacol. 96:79-85.

de Sa, M. S., et al. 2009. Antimalarial activity of betulinic acid and derivatives in vitro against Plasmodium falciprum and in vivo in P. Berghel-infected mice. Parisitol. Res. Jul;105:275-279.

Fulda, S, et al. 1997. Betulinic acid triggers CD95 (APO-1/Fas)- and p53-independent apoptosis via activation of capases in neuroectodermal tumors. Cancer Research. 57:4956.

Fulda, S. 2008. Betulinic acid for cancer treatment and prevention. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 9:1096-1107.

Fulda, S., Jeremias, I., Pietsch, T. and K. M. Debatin. Betulinic acid: a new chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of neuroectodermal tumors. Klin Padiatr. 211:319-322.

Gu, Y. and S. Gowsala. 2006. Cytotoxic effect of oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus on human androgen-independent prostate cancer PC-3 cells. J. Med. Food. 9:196-204.

Ham, S. S., et al. 2003. Antimutagenic and cytotoxic effects of ethanol extract from the Inonotus obliquus. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 32:1088-94.

Hawksworth, D. L. 2001. Mushrooms: the extent of the unexplored potential. Int. J. Med. Mushr. 2:1-9.

Hossain, S., et al. 2003. Dietary mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) ameliorates atherogenic lipid in hypercholesterolaemic rats. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. 30:470-475.

Hyun, K. W., Jeong, S. C., Lee, D. H., Park, J. S., and J. S. Lee. 1996. Isolation and characterization of a novel platelet aggregation inhibitory peptide from the medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus. Boll. Chim. Farm. 135:306-309.

In-Kyoung, L., Young-Sook, K., Yoon-Woo, J., Jin-Young, J., and Y. Bong-Suk. 2007. New antioxidant polyphenols from the medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 17:6678-6681.

Jeremias, I., et al. 2004. Cell death induction by betulinic acid, ceramide, and TRAIL in primary glioblastoma multiforme cells. Acta Neurochirurgica. 146:721-729.

Kahlos, K., Kangas, L., and R. Hiltunen. 1987. Antitumor activity of some compounds and fractions from an n-hexane extract of Inonotus obliquus in vitro. Acta Pharm. Fennica. 96:33-40.

Kharazmi, A. 2008. Laboratory and preclinical studies on the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of rosehip powder—identification and characterization of the active component GOPO. Osteoarhritis and Cartilage. 16:55-57.

Kim, B. K., Shin, G.G., Jeong, B.S., and J.Y. Cha. 2001. Cholesterol lowering effect of mushrooms powder in hyperlipidemic rats. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 30:510-515.

Kim, Y. O., et al. 2005. Immuno-stimulatory effect of the endopolysaccharide produced by submerged culture of Inonotus obliquus. Life Sci. 77:2438-56.

Kim,Y. O., et al. 2006.Anti-cancer effect and structural characterisation of endo-polysaccharide from cultivated mycelia of Inonotus obliquus. Life Sci. 79:72-80.

Koyama, T., Yeunhwa, G., and T. Akira. 2008. Fungal medicine, Fuscoporia obliqua, as a traditional herbal medicine, in vivo testing and medicinal effects. Asian Biomedicine. 2:459-469.

Kraus-Zaki, J. 1957. (In Polish) ACTH jako czynnik hydrolizujacy kwasy dezoksyrybonukleinowe w zastosowaniu do bada cytoenzymatycznych. Haematologica. 1:48-50.

Krauss-Zaki, J. 1962. Correspondence: Digestion of Cell Nucleus by Enzymes. Blood Journal. 19:527.

Lindequist, U., Niedermeyer, T. H. J., and W-D Julich. 2005. The pharmacological potential of mushrooms. Institute of Pharmacy, Greifswald, Germany.

Lull, C., Wichers, H. J., and H. F. J. Savelkoul. 2005. Antiinflammatory and immunomodulating properties of fungal metabolites (In) Mediators of Inflammation. Hindawi Publishing Corp.

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Mizuno, T., et al. 1999. Antitumor and hypoglycemic activities of polysaccharides from Sclerotia and mycelia of Inonotus obliquus. Int. J. Med. Mushrooms. 1:306.

Mizuno, T. 1999. The extraction and development of antitumor-active polysaccharides from medicinal mushrooms in Japan (review). Int. J. Med. Mushr. 1:9-30.

Mothana, R. A. A., Awadh, N. A. A., Jansen, R.,Wegner, U., Mentel, R., and U. Lindequist. 2003. Antiviral lanostanoid triterpenes from the fungus Ganoderma pfeifferi BRES Fitoteraia. 74:483-485.

Mullauer, F. B., Kessler, J. H., and J. P.Medema. Betulin is a potent antitumor agent that is enhanced by cholesterol. 2009. (by) Laboratory for Experimental Oncology and Radiology, PLoS One; 4(4)

Muller, F. L., et al. 2006. Absence of CuZn superoxide dismutase leads to elevated oxidative stress and acceleration of age-dependent skeletal muscle atrophy. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 40:1993-2004.

Najafzadeh, M., et al. 2007. Chaga mushroom extract inhibits oxidative DNA damage in lymphocytes of patients. Biofactors. 31:191-200.

Nakagawa-Goto, K., Taniguchi, M., Tokuda, H., and K. H. Lee. 2008. Cancer preventive agents 9. Betulinic acid derivatives as potent cancer chemopreventive agents. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 1;19:3378-3381.

Nasar-Abbas, S. M. and A. Kadir Haikman. 2004. Antimicrobial effect of water extract of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) on the growth of some food borne bacteria, including pathogens. J. Food Micro. 10:1016.

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Park,Y. M., et al. 2007. In vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of the methanol extract of Inonotus obliquus. J. Med. Food. 10:80-90.

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Rzymowska, J. 1996. The effect of aqueous extracts from Inonotus obliquus on the mitotic index and enzyme activities. Boll Chim. Farm. 135:306-309.

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Sawada, N., et al. 2004. Betulinic acid augments the inhibitory effects of vincristine on growth and lung metastasis of B16F10 melanoma cells in mice. British Cancer Journal. 90:1672.

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Sudhakar, C., Sabitha, P., Shashi, K. R. and S. Safe. 2007. Betulinic acid inhibits prostate cancer growth through inhibition of specificity protein transcription factors. Cancer Research. 67:2816.

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Takada, Y. and B. B. Aggarawal. 2003. Betulinic acid suppresses carcinogen-induced NF-kB activation through inhibition of lkappaB alpha kinase and p65 phosphorylation: abrogation of cyclooxygenase-2 and matrix metalloprotease-9. Journal of Immunology. 171:3278.

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Winther, K., Apel, K. and G. Thamsborg. 2005. A powder made from seeds and shells of a rose-hip subspecies (Rosa canina) reduces symptoms of knew and hip osteoarhritis: A randomized, double-blind placebo controlled trial. Scand J. Rheumatol. 34:302.

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Joo, J.I., Kim, D.H., Yun, J.W. 2010. “Extract of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) stimulates 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation.” Phytother Res. 24 (11):1592-9. doi: 10.1002/ptr.3180.

Ko, S.K., Jin, M., Pyo, M.Y. 2011. “Inonotus obliquus extracts suppress antigen-specific IgE production through the modulation of Th1/Th2 cytokines in ovalbumin-sensitized mice.” J Ethnopharmacol. 137 (3):1077-82. E-pub July 28, 2011.

Najafzadeh, M., Reynolds, P.D., Baumgartner, A., Jerwood, D., Anderson, D. 2007 “Chaga mushroom extract inhibits oxidative DNA damage in lymphocytes of patients with inflammatory bowel disease.” Mol Cells. 31 (2):165-73. E-pub Dec. 22, 2010.

Park, Y.K., Lee, H.B., Jeona, E-J., Jungb, H.S., Kang, M.H. 2004. “Chaga mushroom extract inhibits oxidative DNA damage in human lymphocytes as assessed by comet assay” BioFactors 21:109-112.

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The Cure is in the Forest – Dr. Cass Ingram

Chaga: King of the Medicinal Mushrooms – David Wolfe, Pierre Beaumir, and Ramiz Jaad (2012)